In 2011, M. monoceros
was again selected on the basis of high volume trade in a globally threatened species. Trade originating in Greenland is treated as belonging to Annex B, assuming that the proper domestic licensing procedures were followed
. In 2011, Annex B trade primarily consisted of 74 wild-sourced carvings and 54 tusks traded for personal purposes; trade in these terms decreased by 68% and 27%, respectively, compared to 2010. As in 2010, the remaining Annex A trade was all imported directly from Canada and primarily comprised wild-sourced tusks (56 tusks and 3.1 kg tusks) and teeth (13 teeth); trade in these terms combined remained at similar levels between 2010 and 2011. A positive opinion for Canada was removed on 30/06/2009. The species was reviewed for SRG 51, which indicated concerns regarding overexploitation and lack of information on population sizes and sustainable catch levels for the Greenland population. Greenland introduced a ban on the export of M. monoceros
products in 2006; a former negative opinion for Greenland was removed on 16/02/2010, replaced with a ‘no opinion’ with all applications to be referred to the SRG.
in accordance with Regulation (EC) No. 2724/2000
and Regulation (EU) No. 709/2010
(applicable from 22 July 2010), all Appendix II Cetacea “including products and derivatives other than meat products for commercial purposes, taken by the people of Greenland under licence granted by the competent authority concerned” are treated as belonging to Annex B.
2010 Summary for Monodon monoceros (Narwhal)
Criteria met: High volume (globally threatened)
Principal trade term to the EU: carvings, tusks
Principal source: wild
Top EU importer: Denmark
Top Trading Partner: Greenland
CITES Appendix: II
IUCN Status: Near Threatened
EU-reported imports of wild-sourced Monodon monoceros trophies, tusks, teeth and skulls (excluding tusks and teeth reported in kg) originating in Canada and Greenland, all purposes except ‘S’, ‘Q’ and ‘E’, 2006-2010.
All populations of Monodon monoceros are listed in Annex A, however in accordance with Regulation (EC) No. 2724/2000 and Regulation (EU) No. 709/2010 (applicable from 22 July 2010), all Appendix II Cetacea “including products and derivatives other than meat products for commercial purposes, taken by the people of Greenland under licence granted by the competent authority concerned” are treated as belonging to Annex B. As such, assuming the proper domestic licensing procedures were followed, it can be inferred that the 231 carvings, 92 tusks, 23 specimens, 1000 kg of specimens and two skulls originating in Greenland and imported by the EU in 2010 should be considered as trade in Annex B specimens. These imports were all wild-sourced and imported for scientific purposes or as personal possessions by Denmark.
The remaining trade in M. monoceros was directly imported from Canada and consisted of 63 wild-sourced tusks and eight other items imported as personal possessions, 37 wild-sourced scientific specimens and five pre-Convention carvings.
The SRG formed a negative opinion for Greenland on 13/12/2004 which was confirmed on 15/03/2005. Greenland introduced a ban on the export of M. monoceros products in 2006; subsequently, the negative opinion was removed on 16/02/2010. A positive opinion was formed for Canada on 13/12/2004 and was removed on 30/06/2009.